osha ammonia standard

The rate of discharge of spring-loaded safety relief valves installed on underground containers may be reduced to a minimum of 30 percent of the rate of discharge specified in Table H-36. An emergency alarm and shutoff shall be located in the condenser system to respond to excess discharge pressure caused by failure of the cooling medium. Exposure to 300 parts per million (ppm) is immediately dangerous to life and health. Load imposed by heat flow into the container caused by maximum sun radiation. Provides guidance for evaluating and controlling hazards in the workplace. Hose and hose connections located on the low-pressure side of flow control of pressure-reducing valves shall be designed for a bursting pressure of not less than 5 times the pressure setting of the safety relief devices protecting that portion of the system but not less than 125 p.s.i.g. Containers used with systems covered in paragraph (e) of this section shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the DOT specifications. DOT specifications - Regulations of the Department of Transportation published in 49 CFR Chapter I. Cast iron fittings shall not be used but this shall not prohibit the use of fittings made specifically for ammonia service of malleable, nodular, or high strength gray iron meeting American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A47-68, ASTM 395-68, or ASTM A126-66 Class B or C, all of which re incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6. Excess flow and back pressure check valves where required by the standards in this section shall be located inside of the container or at a point outside as close as practicable to where the line enters the container. All liquid and vapor connections to containers except filling pipes, safety relief connections, and liquid-level gaging and pressure gage connections provided with orifices not larger than No. Relief valves for refrigerated storage containers shall be self-contained spring-loaded, weight-loaded, or self-contained pilot-operated type. Ammonia Refrigeration’s (IIAR’s) Process Safety Management Guidelines for Ammonia Refrigeration and the IIAR’s Risk Management Program Guidelines for Ammonia Refrigeration address the additional requirements needed to meet United States regulations. The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR 1910.119) was promulgated in . In industry, ammonia is used in petroleum refining, to manufacture pharmaceuticals, to disinfect water, and as a refrigerant. Purpose: This program directive establishes uniform policies, procedures, standard clarifications, and compliance guidance for enforcement of the standard for Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, 1910.119 and amendments to the standard for Explosives and Blasting Agents, 1910.109. ammonia, OSHA, including OSHA Ammonia Sign ODE-38000, Portrait OSHA Anhydrous Ammonia Sign With Symbol ODEP-1270-R US-made signs and labels Each storage container shall be provided with a pressure gage graduated from 0 to 400 p.s.i. Containers shall be supported on suitable noncombustible foundations designed to accommodate the type of container being used. F.) which will permit the internal valve to close automatically in case of fire. Pipe shall be Schedule 80. The content of tank motor vehicle containers shall be determined by weight, by a suitable liquid-level gaging device, or other approved methods. No excess flow valve is required in the liquid withdrawal line provided the controlling orifice between the contents of the container and the outlet of the shutoff valve does not exceed seven-sixteenths inch in diameter. Refrigeration plants where ammonia is used solely as a refrigerant. All connections shall be so designed and constructed that there will be no leakage when connected. There shall appear on each side and on the rear end of the container in letters at least 4 inches high, the words, "Caution - Ammonia" or the container shall be marked in accordance with DOT regulations. (i) This standard is intended to apply to the design, construction, location, installation, and operation of anhydrous ammonia systems including refrigerated ammonia storage systems. OSHA’s AN standard. What OSHA standards and exposure guidelines apply to ammonia refrigerant? At a concentration of only 50 parts per million (ppm), one sniff tells what is in the air. All containers with a capacity exceeding 250 gallons shall be equipped for spray loading or with an approved vapor return valve. This document describes key safety measures that should be in place at any ammonia refrigeration facility. (This requirement does not apply to farm vehicles used for the application of ammonia as covered in paragraph (h) of this section.). This is based on a full shift, 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure. In the event that such valves are not practical, remotely operated shutoff valves may be installed. Where containers are reinstalled above ground, safety devices or gaging devices shall comply with paragraph (b)(9) of this section and this paragraph respectively for aboveground containers. Pump discharge shall also be equipped with a spring-loaded safety relief valve set at a pressure not more than 135 percent of the setting of the bypass valve or more than 400 p.s.i.g., whichever is larger. working pressure. Size of discharge lines from safety valves shall not be smaller than the nominal size of the safety-relief valve outlet connection. If the content of a container is to be determined by liquid-level measurement, the container shall have a thermometer well so that the internal liquid temperature can be easily determined. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Fortunately, ammonia has a low odor threshold (20 ppm), so most people will seek relief at much lower concentrations. Piping used on non-refrigerated systems shall be at least American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A-53-69 Grade B Electric Resistance Welded and Electric Flash Welded Pipe, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, or equal. Stationary storage installations must have at least two suitable gas masks in readily-accessible locations. Liquid-level gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere and which are so constructed that outward flow will not exceed that passed by a No. Ammonia is considered a high health hazard because it is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs. Each container except those filled by weight shall be equipped with an approved liquid-level gaging device. Excess flow valves where required by these standards shall close automatically at the rated flows of vapor or liquid as specified by the manufacturer. Shutoff valves shall not be installed between the safety-relief valves and the container; except, that a shutoff valve may be used where the arrangement of this valve is such as always to afford full required capacity flow through the relief valves. With a notation whether the system is designed for underground or aboveground installation or both. All foundations shall extend below the frost line. Plant piping shall contain shutoff valves located as close as practical to compressor connections. Consideration shall be given to the physiological effects of ammonia as well as to adjacent fire hazards in selecting the location for a storage container. The Anhydrous Ammonia Standard (29 CFR 1910.111) addresses the storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia. If the pressure setting adjustment is external, the relief valves shall be provided with means for sealing the adjustment. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Severe Storm and Flood Recovery Assistance. Development and compliance with Process Safety Management (PSM) standards, combined with adequate OSHA HAZWOPER training, can help companies protect employees from injuries caused by ammonia accidents and avoid severe fines and penalties for safety violations. Stationary storage installations shall have an easily accessible shower or a 50-gallon drum of water. "Farm vehicle" (implement of husbandry) - A vehicle for use on a farm on which is mounted a container of not over 1,200 gallons water capacity. All vapor and liquid connections except safety-relief valves and those specifically exempted by paragraph (b)(6)(v) of this section shall be equipped with approved excess-flow valves or may be fitted with quick-closing internal valves which, except during operating periods, shall remain closed. 54 drill size. System nameplates, when required, shall be permanently attached to the system so as to be readily accessible for inspection and shall include markings as prescribed in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph. All excess flow valves shall be plainly and permanently marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the catalog number, and the rated capacity. Containers installed under ground shall be so placed that the top of the container is below the frost line and in no case less than 2 feet below the surface of the ground. The minimum design pressure for containers shall be 250 p.s.i.g. Ammonia is also flammable at concentrations of approximately 15% to 28% by volume in air. It involves the use of a liquid which if spilled may be irritating to the skin or may damage sampling pumps. Each vehicle transporting ammonia in bulk except farm applicator vehicles shall carry a container of at least 5 gallons of water and shall be equipped with a full face mask. The REP, effective October 1, 2018, covers the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas in… A suitable "stop" or "stops" shall be mounted on the vehicle or on the container in such a way that the container shall not be dislodged from its mounting due to the vehicle coming to a sudden stop. The total refrigeration load shall be computed as the sum of the following: Load imposed by heat flow into the container caused by the temperature differential between design ambient temperature and storage temperature. If vent lines are installed to conduct the vapors from the relief valve, the back pressure under full relieving conditions shall not exceed 50 percent of the start-to-discharge pressure for pressure balanced valves or 10 percent of the start-to-discharge pressure for conventional valves. Easily liquefied under pressure.] Filling connections shall be provided with automatic back-pressure check valves, excess-flow valves, or quick-closing internal valves, to prevent back-flow in case the filling connection is broken. F. and 130 deg. Hose subject to container pressure shall be designed for a minimum working pressure of 350 p.s.i.g. The employer shall require the continuous presence of an attendant in the vicinity of the operation during such time as ammonia is being transferred. Such pipe shall be at least schedule 40 when joints are welded, or welded and flanged. The filling densities for containers that are not refrigerated shall not exceed the following: Caution signs shall be so placed on the track or car as to give necessary warning to persons approaching the car from open end or ends of siding and shall be left up until after the car is unloaded and disconnected from discharge connections. With the wall thickness of the shell and heads. The total relieving capacity shall be the larger of: Possible refrigeration system upset such as (1) cooling water failure, (2) power failure, (3) instrument air or instrument failure, (4) mechanical failure of any equipment, (5) excessive pumping rates. There is no threshold quantity in the Anhydrous Ammonia Standard. The OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Anhydrous Ammonia is 50 parts per million (ppm) or 35 milligrams (mg)/cubic meter (m. 3). (ii) This standard does not apply to: (a) Ammonia manufacturing plants. OSHA’s FGAN standard is based on 1970 edition of the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate (NFPA 490). NIOSH indicated its agreement … The employer shall insure that unloading operations are performed by reliable persons properly instructed and given the authority to monitor careful compliance with all applicable procedures. 54 drill-size orifice shall have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable. Pressure gages of bourdon-tube type shall be installed on the suction and discharge of the compressor before the shutoff valves. The design temperature shall be the minimum temperature to which the container will be refrigerated. Full trailers shall be so designed that the towed vehicle will follow substantially in the path of the towing vehicle and will not whip or swerve dangerously from side to side. "Labeled" means there is attached to it a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory which, makes periodic inspections of the production of such equipment, and whose labeling indicates compliance with nationally recognized standards or tests to determine safe use in a specified manner. All piping, tubing, and fittings shall be made of material suitable for anhydrous ammonia service. Such hose shall be equipped with approved shutoff valves at the discharge end. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. Safety relief devices used in systems covered by paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be constructed to discharge at not less than the rates required in paragraph (b)(9)(i) of this section before the pressure is in excess of 120 percent (not including the 10 percent tolerance referred to in paragraph (b)(9)(ii) of this section) of the maximum permitted start-to-discharge pressure setting of the device. Ammonia gas, nitrogen, methane, or other inert gases can be used to provide a pad. Containers built according to the Code do not have to comply with Paragraphs UG125 to UG128 inclusive, and Paragraphs UG132 and UG133 of the Code. Markings shall be in increments of not more than 20 deg. Every container used in systems covered by paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be provided with one or more safety relief valves of the spring-loaded or equivalent type. Fittings shall comply with paragraph (b)(6) of this section. Loading and unloading systems shall be protected by suitable devices to prevent emptying of the storage container or the container being loaded or unloaded in the event of severance of the hose. Compressors shall be sized to operate with a suction pressure at least 10 percent below the minimum setting of the safety valve(s) on the storage container and shall withstand a suction pressure at least equal to 120 percent of the design pressure of the container. F. or gallons, U.S. Standard. Joint compounds shall be resistant to ammonia. (b) Refrigeration plants where ammonia is used solely as a … Containers which may contain liquid ammonia before being installed underground and before being completely covered with earth are to be considered aboveground containers when determining the rate of discharge requirements of the safety-relief valves. This standard is intended to apply to the design, construction, location, installation, and operation of anhydrous ammonia systems including refrigerated ammonia storage systems. OSHA proposed to revise this limit to 25 ppm TWA and to add a 35-ppm 15-minute STEL, based on the limits established by the ACGIH. Gaging devices shall have a design pressure equal to or greater than the design pressure of the container on which they are installed. With marking indicating the maximum level to which the container may be filled with liquid anhydrous ammonia at temperatures between 20 deg. Regulating equipment not so installed shall be flexibly connected to the container shutoff valve. By: Aaron R. Gelb and Beeta B. Lashkari On September 25, 2018, OSHA announced the launch of a new Regional Emphasis Program (REP) to address the hazards from exposure to fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (FGAN) and agricultural anhydrous ammonia. The track of a tank car siding shall be substantially level. In agriculture, ammonia can be used for crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus. All manholes or housings shall be provided with ventilated louvers or their equivalent, the area of such openings equaling or exceeding combined discharge areas of safety-relief valves and vent lines which discharge their content into the manhole housing. For the purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), the word "listed" means that equipment is of a kind mentioned in a list which is published by a nationally recognized laboratory which makes periodic inspection of the production of such equipment, and states such equipment meets nationally recognized standards or has been tested and found safe for use in a specified manner. It was installed before February 8, 1973, and was approved, tested, and installed in accordance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, (both of which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6) in effect at the time of installation; or, It is accepted, or certified, or listed, or labeled, or otherwise determined to be safe by a nationally recognized testing laboratory; or, It is a type which no nationally recognized testing laboratory does, or will undertake to, accept, certify, list, label, or determine to be safe; and such equipment is inspected or tested by any Federal, State, municipal, or other local authority responsible for enforcing occupational safety provisions of a Federal, State, municipal or other local law, code, or regulation pertaining to the storage, handling, transport, and use of anhydrous ammonia, and found to be in compliance with either the provisions of the American National Standard for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, K61.1, or the Fertilizer Institute Standards for the Storage and Handling of Agricultural Anhydrous Ammonia, M-1, in effect at the time of installation; or. With the design pressure in pounds per square inch. All containers shall be equipped with vapor return valves. Containers with a design pressure of 15 p.s.i.g. Anhydrous ammonia shall always be at a temperature suitable for the material of construction and the design of the receiving container. and a minimum burst pressure of 1,750 p.s.i.g. Brakes shall be set and wheels blocked on all cars being unloaded. Safety-relief valves shall have direct communication with the vapor space of the container. It can explode if released in an enclosed space with a source of ignition present, or if a vessel containing anhydrous ammonia is exposed to fire. shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and the materials shall be selected from those listed in API Standard 620, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Fourth Edition, 1970, Tables 2.02, R2.2, R2.2(A), R2.2.1, or R2.3, which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6. Openings from the container or through fittings attached directly on the container to which pressure gage connections are made need not be equipped with excess flow valves if such openings are not larger than No. shall be connected between the compressor discharge and the discharge shutoff valve. Ammonia refrigeration is addressed in OSHA standards for general industry. This standard applies to the design, construction, location, installation, and operation of anhydrous ammonia systems including refrigerated ammonia storage systems. With the name and address of the builder and the date of fabrication. 54 drill size unless provided with an excess flow valve. The filling connection shall be fitted with combination back-pressure check valve and excess-flow valve; one double or two single back-pressure check valves; or a positive shutoff valve in conjunction with either an internal back-pressure check valve or an internal excess flow valve. The maximum allowable water level to which the container may be filled for test purposes. Horizontal aboveground containers shall be so mounted on foundations as to permit expansion and contraction. [Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas. Check out our course descriptions and … Containers for product storage at less than 32 deg. Such pipe shall be at least schedule 80 when joints are threaded. Fire exposure determined in accordance with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) S-1, Part 3, Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers, 1959,, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, except that "A" shall be the total exposed surface area in square feet up to 25 foot above grade or to the equator of the storage container if it is a sphere, whichever is greater. All appurtenances shall be protected against physical damage. If a liquid withdrawal line is installed in the bottom of a container, the connections thereto, including hose, shall not be lower than the lowest horizontal edge of the vehicle axle. Gages shall be designated for use in ammonia service. The loading station involved in the investigation and other systems where anhydrous ammonia is used or stored are covered by OSHA's Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia standard (29 CFR 1910.111) provided they are not ammonia manufacturing plants or refrigeration plants where ammonia is used solely as a refrigerant. However, this standard does not apply to ammonia manufacturing plants or to refrigeration plants where ammonia is … For respiratory protection in concentrated ammonia atmospheres, a self-contained breathing apparatus is required. Ammonia Pipe Marking Standards. Compressors shall be designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. Containers shall be gaged and charged only in the open atmosphere or in buildings or areas thereof provided for that purpose. This paragraph applies to systems utilizing containers of 250 gallons capacity or less which are mounted on farm vehicles (implement of husbandry) and used for the application of ammonia to the soil. They shall be equipped with shutoff valves having metallic handwheels, with excess-flow valves, and with extra heavy glass adequately protected with a metal housing applied by the gage manufacturer. Every container shall be provided with one or more safety-relief valves of the spring-loaded or equivalent type in accordance with paragraph (b)(9) of this section. The distance between underground containers of over 2,000 gallons capacity shall be at least 5 feet. With the density of the product in pounds per cubic foot for which the container was designed. All containers shall be equipped for spray loading (filling in the vapor space) or with an approved vapor return valve of adequate capacity. All refrigerated piping shall conform to the Refrigeration Piping Code, American National Standards Institute, B31.5-1966 with addenda B31.1a-1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, as it applies to ammonia. Full-face masks with ammonia canisters that have been approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 are suitable for emergency action involving most anhydrous ammonia leaks, particularly leaks that occur outdoors. If a metal dome is used, the relief valve shall be properly vented through the dome. Paragraph (b) of this section applies to this paragraph unless otherwise noted. F. or provided the charging of the container is stopped at the first indication of frost or ice formation on its outside surface and is not resumed until such frost or ice has disappeared. Each container shall have a fixed liquid-level gage. If desired, vent pipes from two or more safety-relief devices located on the same unit, or similar lines from two or more different units may be run into a common discharge header, provided the capacity of such header is at least equal to the sum of the capacities of the individual discharge lines. F. except on containers provided with fixed level indicators, such as fixed length dip tubes, or containers that are filled with weight. Provision shall be made to secure both ends of the hose while in transit. With the name and address of the supplier of the system or the trade name of the system and with the date of fabrication. Where a fifth wheel is employed, it shall be ruggedly designed, securely fastened to both units, and equipped with a positive locking mechanism which will prevent separation of the two units except by manual release. The vent lines shall be installed to prevent accumulation of liquid in the lines. This paragraph does not apply to farm vehicles. The document shall set forth the test bases, test data and results, and also the qualifications of the certifying person. However ammonia is a hazardous chemical, and, without proper safety procedures, ammonia leaks in the workplace can endanger workers and even the public. "Design pressure" is identical to the term "Maximum Allowable Working Pressure" used in the Code. Filling compressors may be used as standby equipment for holding compressors. The weak roof-to-shell seam is not to be considered as providing any of the capacity required in (a) of this subdivision. 114. With the water capacity of the container in pounds at 60 deg. The filling connection shall be fitted with a combination back-pressure check valve and an excess-flow valve; one double or two single back-pressure check valves: or a positive shutoff valve in conjunction with an internal back-pressure check valve or an internal excess-flow valve. Regulation equipment may be connected directly to the tank coupling or flange, in which case a flexible connection shall be used between such regulating equipment and the remainder of the liquid withdrawal system. Where more than two compressors are provided minimum standby equipment equal to the largest normally operating equipment shall be installed. OSHA’s former exposure limit for ammonia was 50 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. An emergency source of power of sufficient capacity to handle the loads listed in paragraphs (d)(8)(i) (a) and (b) of this section shall be provided unless facilities are available to safely dispose of vented vapors while the refrigeration system is not operating. Each container or system covered in paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be marked as specified in the following: With a marking identifying compliance with the rules of the Code under which the container is constructed. 54 drill size as required in paragraphs (b)(6) (iv) and (v) of this section shall be equipped with excess-flow valves. For example, this means you can be exposed to 100 ppm for 4 hours of your shift as long as you are not exposed to any ammonia for the other 4 hours of your work day. Compressors shall have pressure gages at suction and discharge graduated to at least one and one-half times the maximum pressure that can be developed. Containers used with systems covered in paragraphs (c), (f), (g), and (h) of this section shall be constructed and tested in accordance with the Code except that construction under Table UW12 at a basic joint efficiency of under 80 percent is not authorized. Gaging devices that require bleeding of the product to the atmosphere such as the rotary tube, fixed tube, and slip tube devices shall be designed so that the maximum opening of the bleed valve is not larger than No. NIOSHTIC-2 search results for ammonia – NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. The minimum design pressure for containers shall be that specified in the regulations of the DOT. This Ammonia Awareness Program (ISNetworld® RAVS®* Section), in addition to being a complete and functioning written safety program (chapter), it also contains all the required text elements that are sought by the ISNetworld RAVS® (Review And Verification Service) reviewer.This plan has been previously submitted and has achieved … Marking the container. A relief valve large enough to discharge the full capacity of the compressor shall be connected to the discharge before any shutoff valve. Containers so protected shall not be uncovered after installation until the liquid ammonia has been removed. OSHA has no “agricultural nutrient” exemption. Among the requirements: Containers installed above ground, except as provided in paragraph (c)(5)(v) of this section shall be provided with substantial concrete or masonry supports, or structural steel supports on firm concrete or masonry foundations. A trailer shall be constructed so that it will follow substantially in the path of the towing vehicle and will not whip or swerve dangerously from side to side. If the system contains more than 10,000 pounds (lbs.) All connections to underground containers shall be located within a dome, housing, or manhole and with access thereto by means of a substantial cover. In addition to the Process Safety Management Standard (PSM), there is another OSHA regulation for anhydrous ammonia. Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia. An emergency alarm system shall be installed to function in the event the pressure in the container(s) rises to the maximum allowable operating pressure. Brass, copper, or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used. 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And protected against corrosion reviews scientific data and results, and other connections affixed! Of approximately 15 % to 28 % by volume in air possession of FGAN all... Up, shall be supported to prevent accumulation of liquid in the DOT service shall conform the! Working pressure of 500 p.s.i.g welding is permitted only on saddle plates, lugs, or containers are! Scientific data and results, and fittings shall be recommended osha ammonia standard ammonia.! Colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions and has a very characteristic odor containers! Enough to discharge the full capacity of the supplier of the vapor space of shell! Least 250 p.s.i.g marking standards of 350 p.s.i.g spray loading or with an approved vapor return valve steel. And … OSHA ’ s About PDF page to learn more and fittings shall be shielded against the direct of! For definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory loading or with an approved liquid-level gaging device Agricultural ammonia -. Household cleaners metal dome is used solely as a refrigerant and long grass!

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